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New study reveals widespread influence of oceans on Earth’s climate


New study reveals widespread influence of oceans on Earth’s climate

A new study has provided scientists with a global picture of how ocean activity influences the lower-level atmosphere and vice versa.

Scientists from the University of Maryland used statistical analysis to study the influence of the ocean on the atmosphere in the extratropics, the regions of Earth poleward of the tropics.

The researchers applied a statistical method for establishing causation known as the Granger Method, named after its creator, the Nobel-laureate mathematician Clive Granger.

“There are many physical processes that govern the interaction between the atmosphere and ocean,” lead author Eviatar Bach, a PhD student in the University of Maryland’s Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, told Science Daily.

Continue reading New study reveals widespread influence of oceans on Earth’s climate at Meteorological Technology International.


Oceans absorbing CO2 at much higher rates than previously thought


Oceans absorbing CO2 at much higher rates than previously thought

A new study has revealed that the world’s oceans are absorbing far more of the carbon dioxide released in to the atmosphere by human activity than was previously believed.

Covering two-thirds of Earth’s surface, it has long been known that oceans play a key role in sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide. It was previously estimated that around a quarter of the carbon dioxide we release into the atmosphere is absorbed into the oceans.

However, according to a new study published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles the true figure is closer to a third. Dr David Woolf, of Edinburgh’s Heriot-Watt University and the study’s lead author, said, “Our research shows that three gigatonnes of carbon a year are being drawn down into the ocean, which is about a third of the emissions caused by human activity.

Continue reading Oceans absorbing CO2 at much higher rates than previously thought at Meteorological Technology International.


Natural disasters costing US$1bn each, says NOAA


Natural disasters costing US$1bn each, says NOAA

Extreme weather has resulted in at least US$10bn-worth of damage to the US in 2019 so far, according to US government statistics. The economic toll of natural disasters in the country was laid out in a report published by NOAA.

According to the report “there have been 10 weather and climate disaster events with losses exceeding US$1bn each across the United States” since the start of the year.

These events included three major floods, five severe storm events and two tropical cyclones – Hurricane Dorian and Tropical Storm Imelda. As well as their economic impact, these natural disasters accounted for the deaths of 39 people, according to NOAA.

Continue reading Natural disasters costing US$1bn each, says NOAA at Meteorological Technology International.


Antarctic warm front reveals influence of stratosphere in shaping weather


Antarctic warm front reveals influence of stratosphere in shaping weather

A rare warming event in the upper atmosphere above Antarctica has given scientists a better understanding of how much the stratosphere influences climate.

Known as sudden stratospheric warming, the phenomenon has raised temperatures in the upper atmosphere by nearly 4.5°C over the past month.

When Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate scientist Eun-Pa Lim input the temperature rise into a short-term forecasting model she had designed, it predicted that the stratospheric warming will drive hot, dry winds across eastern Australia for the next three months, according to a report in the journal Nature.

Continue reading Antarctic warm front reveals influence of stratosphere in shaping weather at Meteorological Technology International.


Arctic research ship selects drifting base for atmospheric study


Arctic research ship selects drifting base for atmospheric study

An ambitious international project to study the climate of the Arctic from a research ship floating in polar ice for a year has reached an important milestone.

Researchers on board the RV Polarstern, which set sail from Tromso in Norway late last month, have selected the ice floe which will serve as their drifting base for the next 13 months.

Known as the Multidisciplinary Drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), the US$150m project is the largest shipborne polar expedition in history. Researchers hope that data gleaned from the expedition will mark a step-change in climate science.

Continue reading Arctic research ship selects drifting base for atmospheric study at Meteorological Technology International.


Heat waves to at least double in size by middle of century according to new study


Heat waves to at least double in size by middle of century according to new study

As the reality of climate change sets in temperatures this summer reached the highest ever recorded on Earth.

These new temperature highs brought a spate of heat waves, which scientists say are likely to increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. What has been less studied until now is how climate change will affect the spatial size of heat waves in the future.

In a new study funded in part by NOAA and published in Environmental Research Letters, scientists examining this question came up with some startling results.

The scientists found that in a mid-range greenhouse emissions scenario the average spatial size of heat waves could increase by 50% by the middle of this century.

Continue reading Heat waves to at least double in size by middle of century according to new study at Meteorological Technology International.


The importance of accurate air turbulence forecasting for aviation


The importance of accurate air turbulence forecasting for aviation

Jim Foerster, director of meteorology services for DTN, looks at how more sophisticated weather models and algorithms are helping to predict turbulence better

A 2016 study of fatal weather-related general aviation accidents in the US shows that weather, including turbulence, was a cause or contributing factor in 35% of cases. This is one reason why many aviation regulations around the world state that all passengers and crew must have their seatbelts fastened prior to aircraft moving, and can only be unfastened once the threat of turbulence, among other hazards, is lessened. Turbulence is a major concern for airlines and passengers, as evidenced by the recent news coverage of the subject.

Continue reading The importance of accurate air turbulence forecasting for aviation at Meteorological Technology International.


Meteorologists testify to US Congress about why the public ignores evacuation orders


Meteorologists testify to US Congress about why the public ignores evacuation orders

Meteorological experts have been testifying before politicians in the US on the thorny question of why the public so often ignore evacuation orders.

Experts in the field appeared before a congressional hearing in Washington to answer lawmakers concerns about the issue.

The hearing of the House Science, Space and Technology Committee came after the US Congress ordered NOAA in 2017 to conduct a study of how the public responds to weather alerts with a view to devising more effective warnings.

Congress’s call for action was prompted in turn by findings in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy, which devastated the US east coast in 2012.

Continue reading Meteorologists testify to US Congress about why the public ignores evacuation orders at Meteorological Technology International.