A Swedish-led satellite for improving Arctic coverage has gained support from enough countries within the European Space Agency to receive budgetary approval.
Work can now start on the prototype of the Arctic Weather Satellite, which has advanced sensors to provide information about humidity, precipitation and ice clouds in the atmosphere.
The data provides meteorological institutes the opportunity to improve weather forecasts in Arctic and subarctic areas, and the quality of global forecasts.
Anke Thoss, head of atmospheric remote sensing research unit at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), said, “SMHI has been involved in formulating the requirements for a future meteorological satellite system to meet the needs of the Nordic weather services.”
The Arctic Weather Satellite will meet the need for a greater number of more frequent data deliveries to provide regional weather forecasts that remain accurate by being updated regularly.
Carbon dioxide levels are expected to rise at the highest annual rates since records began, with Australian bushfires significantly contributing to the increase.
Measurements taken at Mauna Loa in Hawaii for the atmospheric concentration of CO2 are expected to peak above 417ppm (parts per million) in May, and average 414.2 ± 0.6ppm.
The annual average represents a 2.74 ± 0.57ppm on the average for 2019.
Human-made emissions have caused the CO2 to rise in concentration, impacts of weather patterns on global ecosystems are predicted to increase the rise by 10% this year. Emissions from Australian bushfires contributed up to one-fifth of the increase.
Ice911 Research, a non-profit dedicated to restoring the Arctic ice and polar habitat, will begin tests next month to quantify the behavior and persistence of microsphere-treated Arctic sea ice compared to untreated control Arctic ice.
The organization will utilize the University of Manitoba’s Sea-ice Environmental Facility (SERF) in Winnipeg, Canada.
Under controlled conditions in a contained experimental site, the tests will provide data about the performance of Ice911’s Arctic sea ice albedo modification product.
Dr Leslie Field, founder and CEO of Ice911 Research, said, “Continued rigorous testing will provide crucial information to international organizations so they can make impartial decisions about governance, permitting and funding.
Meteorologists from the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) will study a key component of the global water cycle known as atmospheric rivers.
The rivers in the sky, also known as the Maya or Pineapple Express, account for much of the horizontal moisture transported outside of the tropics – the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn – and up to the Arctic.
Carolyn Reynolds PhD, head of the probabilistic prediction research office at NRL, said, “These narrow rivers move a significant amount of water through the air, even though they take up a relatively small area.
A major study has just begun in Barbados aimed at understanding the role cloud cover plays in climate change.
The European-led team will spend a month observing cloud circulation with a field operation based out of the Caribbean island.
Known as EUREC4A (Elucidating the role of clouds-circulation coupling in climate) it is the first field study to test whether changes in cloudiness act to amplify global warming. This positive feedback hypothesis, which was reached through several rounds of international climate model intercomparison studies, could have implications for Earth’s climate sensitivity. The field study will also test the validity of models that show a reduction in cloudiness increasing warming from CO2.
A new study suggests that irrigation can cancel out – or even reverse – the growing risk of heat extremes caused by human-induced climate change.
The research carried out by ETH Zurich in collaboration with other universities and the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was published in Nature Communications. While it was already widely known that large-scale irrigation can significantly affect local climate, this was the first time researchers had attempted to measure its impact on global warming.
Led by ETH Zurich researcher Sonia Seneviratne, an international team of researchers used observational data and global climate simulations to isolate the climatic effects of irrigation from other natural and human climatic drivers, mainly greenhouse gas emissions.
A new joint US-Taiwanese satellite system is likely to significantly improve short-term weather forecasts according to newly released data from the project.
The COSMIC-2 constellation of six small satellites was sent in to orbit last June with the goal of improving forecasts of hurricanes and other major storms.
Equipped with an array of innovative sensors, the system will also provide crucial data about upper atmospheric disturbances that can impact global communications and power grids.
The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) – a US non-profit consortium of American universities, and one of the partners in the project – has released the first data from COSMIC-2 (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate).
New research has provided further proof that greenhouse gas emissions modify how clouds form. The research, carried out by Giulia Saponaro from the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), looked at the interactions between clouds and aerosols.
It is already known that naturally occurring aerosols – often sulfates, sea salt or ammonium salts – play a critical role for clouds, serving as the tiny ‘seeds’ that catalyze cloud formation.
Aerosols emitted by humans also play a role in cloud formation, producing clouds that paradoxically look brighter even though they are polluted.
Saponaro used data from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), an imaging tool on board NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites that measures large-scale global dynamics such as changes in Earth’s cloud cover and radiation budget.